Netball is set to become a quicker, quieter and more attacking game next year under new rule changes.
The International Netball Federation has announced the changes at all levels of the game from January 1.
In the most significnat tactical changes, attackers can now play advantage and take a free pass before a sanctioned defender moves aside, while centres need only one foot in the centre circle before restarting play.
Reducing the barrage of whistle blowing, umpires will no longer be required to whistle for obvious goals.
Tactical stoppages will be a thing of the past with injured players being forced to leave the court after 30 seconds, goal tending has been banned and penalties renamed as sanctions among other changes.
"The new rules aim to meet the changing needs of the game, reflect the modern forward looking sport of netball, improve players enjoyment of the game, create consistency in the interpretation of the rules across all world regions, and make the game more attractive to spectators," Netball Australia's head of strategy and development AnneMarie Phippard said.
The Australian Diamonds three-Test tour of England in January 2016 will be the first international Test matches contested under the new rules.
The rules were discussed by the International Netball Federation during August's World Cup in Sydney.